WEB The refurbished ID19 beamline: a versatile station for multi-scale and time-resolved synchrotron-based microtomography using hard X-rays
The ESRF is the worldwide leader in parallel-beam synchrotron radiation (SR) X-ray imaging. Especially beamline ID19 has become a reference instrument for SR-based X-ray phase contrast microtomography and -radiography. A substantial evolution of the present ID19 beamline is aiming to optimize it for multiscale applications of parallel and coherent imaging techniques. The main parts of the ID19 refurbishment project cover: installation of transfocators to be used for beam compression as well as inline monochromator; replacement of the existing monochromators by a multi-modal monochromator offering Bragg, Lauë or multilayer reflection or combinations of two of the three; installation of additional experimental stations in order to trim the sample-detector propagation distance between 1 mm (high resolution phase contrast imaging with a small field of view) up to 14 m (low resolution / large field of view). Furthermore, the number of insertion devices has been increased by installation of revolver-type solutions: ID19 can now chose between a wiggler, two standard u32 undulators and two so-called single-harmonic undulators (18 keV and 26 keV peak intensity). Up to three insertion devices can be used together, allowing for example photon-demanding applications such as single-bunch imaging.
Multi-scale micro-CT is successfully applied to characterise various specimens and numerous experiments on a regular basis. The main applications are originating from materials sciences, palaeontology and biomedical research. Synchrotron radiation provides high photon flux density, especially in the above mentioned pink beam (polychromatic) mode, using single-harmonic undulators or filtered white beam (covering energy range of 35 to 250 keV). This possibility leads to develop in situ experiments to add a fourth dimension to studies (e.g., time, temperature). Samples can be investigated in situ, employing different sample environments like tensile stress, compression, fatigue devices, low or high temperature, hygrometry control, and more recently high temperature under controlled atmosphere. Single-distance phase-retrieval is applied to the data sets acquired in a routinely manner allowing one to drastically increase the imaging sensitivity. Moreover, a strong demand was also emerging to employ this potential for time-resolved in situ experiments, decreasing acquisition time to less than 1s using commercial CMOS-based cameras.